Photobiomodulation (PBM) can inhibit early changes of diabetic retinopathy, significantly reduce focal retinal thickening in non-center-involving diabetic macular oedema, accelerate the healing process of chronic diabetic foot ulcers, increase skin microcirculation (and skin temperature) in patients with diabetic microangiopathy (including ulcers or gangrenes and elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin).

Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice.
Saliba A1, Du Y2, Liu H2, Patel S3, Roberts R3, Berkowitz BA4, Kern TS5.


Photobiomodulation in the treatment of patients with non-center-involving diabetic macular oedema.
Tang J1, Herda AA2, Kern TS3.


A randomized clinical trial on the effect of low-level laser therapy on chronic diabetic foot wound healing: a preliminary report.
Kaviani A1, Djavid GE, Ataie-Fashtami L, Fateh M, Ghodsi M, Salami M, Zand N, Kashef N, Larijani B.


Low-intensity laser irradiation improves skin circulation in patients with diabetic microangiopathy.
Schindl A1, Schindl M, Schön H, Knobler R, Havelec L, Schindl L.



Julian Loh